In two settlement decisions, the European Commission has fined five banks for taking part in two cartels in the Spot Foreign Exchange market for 11 currencies - Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, US, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian Dollars, and Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns. The first decision (so-called “Forex - Three Way Banana Split” … Continue reading European Commission fines Barclays, RBS, Citigroup, JPMorgan and MUFG €1.07 billion for participating in foreign exchange spot trading cartel
The European Court of Auditors has today published a Background Paper on the enforcement of the EU’s competition rules. Background Papers provide information on ongoing audit tasks and are designed as a source of information for those interested in the policy and/or programmes being audited. Today’s Paper is based on preparatory work for an audit … Continue reading Auditors publish Background Paper on EU competition policy enforcement
The focus of this essay is to critically asses what Article 101 TFEU provides and analyse some important cases related to infringement of Article 101. It will also provide an evaluation of the Court of Justice of the European Union’s (CJEU) interpretation of the article in question, and measures adopted to tackle agreements restricting competition. … Continue reading An evaluation of the extent to which the Court of Justice of the European Union’s interpretation of Article 101 TFEU has been effective in tackling restrictive agreements.